A Carniola sausage query

The name Carniola sausage is not derived from “meat” (It. carne), as somebody had deliciously surmised—much less from “meat and oil” (!). Nay, that regional toponym Carniola commemorates the ancient tribe called the Carni (as does the name of the neighbouring place Carinthia) ; and, as seen below, the gloss given by Victorian (and late Hanoverian) authors was [Carni < pan-Celtic carn, “point, peak, heap of rock, horn” ; cf. Eng. cairn]. I quote at length so the reader can see other interesting etymologies such as [Friuli < (Ditio Fori Julii <) Forum Julii]. ~Q~

CARNI (Κάρνοι), an Alpine tribe, who inhabited the ranges of those mountains which separated Venetia from Noricum, extending from Rhaetia on the W. to the confines of Istria on the E. Their limits, however, are not very clearly defined. Strabo appears to confine them to the mountain country, and regards the plain about Aquileia as belonging to Venetia (iv. p. 206, v. p. 216). Ptolemy, on the contrary, divides the province into two portions, distinguishing the territory of the Carni from Venetia, and assigning to the former the two cities of Aquileia and Concordia near the coast, as well as Forum Julii in the interior. (Ptol. iii. 1. § 29.) Pliny also calls the district about Aquileia “Carnorum regio,” but no mention is found of the Carni in the account given by Livy of the foundation of that city, which he certainly appears to have regarded as situated in Venetia. (Liv. xxxix. 22, 45, 55.) The proper abode of the Carni would therefore seem to have been the mountain ranges that sweep in a kind of semicircle round the plain of the Frioul ; and which were thence distinguished as the Alpes Carnicae, though in later times better known as the Alpes Juliae. [ALPES] Here they were bounded by the Rhaetians on the W., by the Noricans on the N., and by the Taurisci and Iapodes on the E. Tergeste, on the very confines of Istria, was, before it became a Roman town, a village of the Carni. (Strab. vii. p. 314.) We have no express statement in any ancient author, concerning their origin, but there seem to be good reasons for believing them to be a Celtic race ; and the Fasti Triumphales record the triumph of M. Aemilius Scaurus in B. C. 115, “de Galleis Karneis.” (Gruter. Inscr. p. 298. 3.) This is the only notice we have of the period of their conquest by the Romans, none of the extant historians having deemed the event worthy of mention ; nor have we any account of the period at which they were reduced to a state of more complete subjection ; but the names of Julium Carnicum, and Forum Julii, given to the two Roman towns which were established within their territory, sufficiently point out that this took place either under Caesar himself, or (more probably) under Octavian. The construction of a Roman road through the heart of this territory, which led from Aquileia up the valley of the Tilavemptus (Tagliamento) to Julium Carnicum (Zuglio), and thence across the southern chain of the Alps to Aguntum (Innichen), in the valley of the Drave, must have completely opened out their mountain fastnesses. But the Carni continued to exist as a distinct tribe, down to a late period of the Roman Empire, and gave to the mountain region which they occupied the name of Carnia or Carniola. The latter form, which first appears in Paulus Diaconus (Hist. vi. 52), has been retained down to the present day, though the greater part of the modern duchy of Carniola (called in German Krain), was not included within the limits of the Carni, as these are defined by Strabo and Pliny. The name of the adjoining province of Carinthia (in German Kärnthen) is evidently also derived from that of the Carni. The name of that people may very probably be derived from the Celtic root Carn, a point or peak (connected with the German Horn), and have reference to their abode among the lofty and rugged summits of the Alps. (Zeuss, Die Deutschen, p. 248.)The topography of the land of the Carni is given under the general head VENETIA : it being impossible to define with certainty the limits of the Carni and Veneti, the distinction established by Ptolemy having certainly not been generally observed. The only two towns of any consideration which we can assign with certainty to the Carni, are Julium Carnicum (Zuglio), and Forum Julii (Cividale), the latter of which became, towards the close of the Roman Empire, a place of great importance, and gave to the whole surrounding province the name, by which it is still known, of the Friuli, or Frioul. Pliny mentions two other towns, named Ocra and Segeste, as belonging to the Carni, but which no longer existed in his time. (Plin. iii. 18. s. 23.)- entry by E. H. Bunbury, Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854)


According to Cæsar and Pliny, the Celts were divided into greater and lesser tribes, which preserved the distinguishing appellation wherever they emigrated, and settled apart from the parent stock. We have observed that part of the nation became possessed of the flat country about the Danube, and extended thence to the Alps and the shores of the Adriatic; the northern parts of which (the present Friuli and Carniola,) were occupied by the Carni or Carnuntes. At their appearance the Veneti, and the relicts of Tuscan colonies placed there, were compelled to recede, as well as Liburnians, early celebrated as a maritime and commercial people. The Carni were descendants of those whose settlements were on the Loire and about Paris, and of whom considerable numbers accompanied Bellovesus into Italy. The towns they founded in the neighbourhood of the Adriatic were subsequently named Forum Julium, Concordia, Aquileia, Tergeste, and Ocra: the clan contiguous to them were the Taurisci, inhabiting the Alps; but the Carni must have extended, at some period previous to the Roman conquest of these territories, to the northern side of the Alps, as the names of places indicate, viz. the Carnian Alps, Julium Carnicum, in the Geilthal; Pliny mentions “Julienses Carnorum,” and Ptolemy the “urbes Carnorum Mediterraneæ;” but subsequently the political divisions and nomenclature of the Romans were substituted for the original Celtic names, and Carnia was lost in the “regio decima Italiæ;” however, the tribe of the Carni existed on the northern shore of the Adriatic as late as two centuries before Christ, which an inscribed monument found at Trieste attests, (Della Croce Hist. Trieste.) At last the general name of Noricum superseded that of the distinct clans; but, after the fall of the Roman empire, the ancient name of Carnia* has been revived in the present Carniola. Part of this tribe founded Carnuntum, on the Danube; the ruins of this city, once celebrated for its commerce, still exist: Zosimus informs us it was the seat of a Celtic colony.*This district is still remarkably rugged, the surface being in parts covered with heaps of rock and stones,—Carn, in Welsh.- “Historical Account of the Celts, Especially of Those Who Inhabited Noricum. Translated from the German of Prof. Muchar, of Gratz”, The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory, Vol. IV, No. 13 (London, 1832)





Ditio Fori Julii in What Is Luxury? “By A Lay Observer” (London, 1829)







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